Study on accumulation of Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd in Nerita lineata and Thais bitubercularis from Tanjung Harapan and Teluk Kemang, Malaysia
Journal: Journal Clean WAS (JCleanWAS)
Author: Tengku Hanidza Tengku Ismail, Nur Azyan Fathiah Adnan and Mohd Armi Abu Samah
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Solid waste management is one of the most difficult environmental problems in the urban center of developing countries, where services are often grossly deficient, particularly in low-income settlements. These settlements often comprise a sizable proportion of the city’s area and population. Rapid urban growth, increasing population density, traffic congestion, air and water pollution, increasing per capita generation of solid waste, and lack of land for waste disposal contribute to the aggravation of solid waste management problems. Future demands will increase with expanding residential, commercial, and industrial sectors and increasing economic development. This paper aimed to examine the current practice of solid waste management programs in the city of Al-Marj, which is located in the central northeastern area of Libya. Various problems of wastes in past and present, waste minimization hierarchy and people attitudes and awareness towards’ waste management are defined. We found that the lack of effective relationship between various stakeholders contributes to the unsuccessful good solid waste management practices in the study area. Sustainable solid waste management in Libya can be achieved through active participation of these stakeholders.