EVALUATING SELECTED SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL TILLAGE SYSTEMS IN ARID SOUTHEAST RAWALPINDI, PAKISTAN
Journal: Journal Clean WAS (JCleanWAS)
Author: Rana Shahzad Noor, Fiaz Hussain and Muhammad Umair
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Tillage is a critical soil management option that affect many soil physical, chemical and biological properties, which in turn may alter the soil environment and consequently impact on root growth and distribution, and crop yield. This study was carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of different soil tillage systems on some soil physical properties under both irrigated and rainfed wheat productions for nine consecutive wheat seasons (2011-12 and 2019-20) at Koont research farm, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi. Four soil tillage systems were performed i.e. conventional tillage system (S1), reduced tillage system-1 (S2), reduced tillage system-2 (S3) and no tillage system (S4). The results showed that soil moisture content measured at both soil depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm) was the maximum in direct sowing (S4) and lowest in conventional soil tillage system (S1). Bulk density and porosity were changes with tillage depth. Among studied tillage systems, bulk density and penetration resistance values were the maximum and porosity was lowest in direct wheat sowing system. Soil particle size distribution was affected by operations and agricultural machinery used in soil tillage systems. The aggregate size smaller than 1 mm showed higher fragmentation (42.25%) in S3. This study showed that soil physical properties were influenced by tillage systems in wheat production under irrigation and rainfed environment. Although the climate of the study area is semi-arid and direct sowing system provide maximum moisture but reduced tillage method can be used for better soil physical properties and highest crop yield.